Thursday, May 21, 2020

Emerging Health Threats Zika Virus - 1311 Words

Emerging Health Threats; Zika Virus The Zika virus has been around since the 1950s, it is spread by an infected Aeded species mosquito bite, and they bite both day and night. Zika is transmitted from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby and an infection during the pregnancy period may cause birth defects. So far a vaccine or medicine for Zika has not been discovered . For years mosquitos that transmitted Zika virus were mainly in Asia and Africa s equatorial region. They caused flu-like mild illness together with a rush. A decade ago, there were reports of Zika outbreaks along the Pacific. It showed up in South America last spring infecting over a million Brazilians and has been linked to a high increase in the number of new born babies diagnosed with microcephaly. Microcephaly is a condition characterized with a small brain and head and it is feared the spread is still going on. In fact, this past year the Zika infected population has officially reached ‘pandemic’ status . In the Spring of 2015 there was a major outbreak of the virus in Brazil and since then it has spread to parts of South America, Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean (Fauci, Morens, 2016). In addition, Zika virus can also be spread by Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedesalbopictus). In order to determine other places in the world where Zika virus could spread as those infected in the Brazilian outbreak got into contact with the mosquitoes, an NIH team under Kamran Khan from St, Michael s Hospital,Show MoreRelatedCommon Infectious Disease : Zika Virus And The Epidemiology, And How It Has Impacted The Nursing Practice1387 Words   |  6 PagesZika Virus There are many infectious and/or communicable diseases that circulate the world and infect many people and communities. Emerging infectious diseases are those that in which the incidences have increased in the past several decades or have the potential to increase in the near future (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2016, p. 293). The newest emerging infectious disease that has begun to spread worldwide is transmitted through a simple mosquito bite and is known as the Zika virus. The purposeRead MoreA Science Fiction Movie On The Big Screen Essay1260 Words   |  6 Pageshumanity via disease or virus, it is easy to take it lightly and brush it off as another Hollywood concoction. There is some truth and seriousness attached to the fabricated plots that are served to us though these movies. Recently there has been news of contagious breakouts such as Ebola and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that affect the populations in hospitals and particular locations of the world. There is an international concern in the Zika virus by the recent outbreak atRead MoreA Brief Note On Environmental And Emergency Preparedness1385 Words   |  6 Pages MS, BA, AAS Environmental health hazards refer to any threats to human health; an example of these hazards is disease-causing agents and chemical exposure. These hazards are closely associated with disasters and emergencies in a variety of ways (WHO, 2015). The environmental and emergency preparedness is one of the main core duties of the department of public health (WHO, 2015). Emergency preparedness refers to people’s preparation for emerging health threats that will protect people from infectiousRead MoreThe New Emerging Diseases / Virus Essay1345 Words   |  6 PagesBesides been a problem to the health of the people, there is a greater problem. The problem is that people are not inform, does not read or watch news because of work or other reasons. Therefore, it would be interesting to know and discuss one of the new emerging diseases/virus that have pass from a normal fever to a STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) diseases. Can you guess or have a clue which diseases is? If you thought about Ebola, you are wrong, is the famous ZIKA. In this paper, the complexRead MoreA Review On The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7 Deaza 21293 Words   |  6 Pagesand fight against HIV/AIDS there emerged a new form of viral disease that terrif ied the entire population of the planet. ZIKA virus is an emerging killer disease that has symptoms similar to a very mild dengue fever. This paper therefore is a review of an article entitled â€Å"The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2’-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model†. The paper is intended to highlight the keyRead MoreHiv / Aids : A New Form Of Viral Disease1287 Words   |  6 Pagesand fight against HIV/AIDS there emerged a new form of viral disease that terrified the entire population of the planet. ZIKA virus is an emerging killer disease that has symptoms similar to a very mild dengue fever. This paper therefore is a review of an article entitled â€Å"The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2’-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model†. The p aper is intended to highlight the keyRead MoreHow Biosecurity Affects Human Health1134 Words   |  5 Pagessystems of health 1. Human 2. Animal 3. Plant b. Discuss how biosecurity affects human health i. Define human health system II. Body a. Historical issues i. Diseases in the past that affect human health 1. Plague 2. Anthrax 3. Smallpox 4. Botulism b. Current issues i. Diseases/Pests that still affect human health 1. Direct impacts a. Ebola b. Zika c. Chikungunya 2. Indirect impacts a. Avian Influenza b. Influenza A c. Possible emerging threats III. Conclusion a. Summarize i. Past human health effectsRead MoreNo Treatment Or Vaccine For The Zika Virus1781 Words   |  8 Pagestreatment or vaccine for the Zika virus but there are antibiotics available to treat a range of bacterial infections. (WHO, 2016) The only way to prevent the dangerous complications is to avoid contracting the virus. The main prevention is to avoid mosquito bites since it is mosquito borne, especially for travelers. Some prevention methods include staying inside, wearing long sleeves and using insecticide. Many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean where Zika has been locally transmittedRead MoreThe Epidemic Of The Zika Virus2539 Words   |  11 Pagestropical virus has been prompting a worldwide concern lately. A number of cases has been increasing and not much has been done to protect our citizens. The Zika Virus is an epidemic on delay, with the worst of the outbreak’s effects trailing in the wake of the mosquitoes that carry the virus. The Zika is mosqui to borne virus that has spread rapidly across the world such as the warm parts of Latin America, from Brazil to Mexico and even Puerto Rico. [World Health Organization (WHO), 2016] The Zika virusRead MoreZikv Essay1593 Words   |  7 Pagesunable to provide vector control, contraception, and adequate health services, which lead to an increase in spread and disease complications (Jamrozik Selgelid, 2017). Northeastern Brazil is one of the more poverty-stricken regions of the country, and perhaps for this reason, the majority of CZS cases were concentrated in this area; officials were unable to effectively control mosquito populations, distribute information about the virus to citizens, and treat expect mothers who have been infected

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Caribbean Slavery Essay - 878 Words

Caribbean Slavery Starting in the seventeenth century, the European colonization of the Caribbean changed drastically as exploration gave way to exploitation. As the great wealth that the Caribbean held became more evident to the European colonizers, a rush of profit hunters stormed the area and flooded it with slavery. The massive introduction of slavery as the major form of labor organization in the Caribbean changed social organization radically. The plantation system thrived and expanded through the following years (centuries), and the Caribbean became the focus of American slave centers, The planters of the Caribbean bought about sixty percent of all the slaves sold to the Americas between 1701 and 1810 (Knight, p112). Franklin†¦show more content†¦The free coloured people became a third party in a system built for two (Sio, p 150). An interesting point that this article demonstrates is that, for the most part, a two-tier system of society was in place in the Caribbean. The rule known as the the one drop rule, places you in a group defined very specifically based on your biological background. This placed free coloured people in an awkward limbo. Later on in the history of race relations in the Americas, a multi-tier system of many stratifications and degrees developed in the majority of the areas, with Cuba and the United States clinging to the two-tier system. The maroons and the buccaneers were other groups that strayed from the norm in slave societies. The maroons and buccaneers conjure up romantic images of free men living exciting lives in the minds of many people, but even as the most successful alternative to the normal society, they were never secure in their wellbeing (Knight, p 90). While their general health and quality of living far surpassed that of the slaves, disease, malnutrition, and threats of attacks were always significant worries for these types of groups. Monica Schuler mentions another fascinating aspect of Caribbean slave societies in her article entitled, Akan Slave Rebellions in the British Caribbean. The resistance put forth by Africans began, in many cases, on the boats in which they were being transported. With tactics such asShow MoreRelatedSlavery in the Caribbean2119 Words   |  9 PagesThe period of slavery was characterised primarily by one protracted war launched by those enslaved against their enslavers’ (V. Shepherd). Discuss with special reference to the anti-slavery activities of enslaved Africans. Ra’Monne Darrell Gardiner 410004250 Caribbean Civilization Professor C. Curry University of the West Indies November 23rd, 2010 â€Å"Where ever there was slavery, there was resistance† (University of the West Indies 86). Before the arrival of the first AfricanRead MoreEssay on History of Slavery in the Caribbean720 Words   |  3 PagesHistory of Slavery in the Caribbean The institution of slavery has played a major role in the history, and the shaping of the Caribbean. Therefore, in order to truly understand the Caribbean one must completely understand slavery itself. Slavery can be defined as belonging to a person, or being treated like a piece of property, and not having any individual freedom This was essentially the life many Africans lived for many centuries in the Caribbean . The master’s had total freedom and controlRead More Slavery in the Caribbean Essay1086 Words   |  5 PagesSlavery in the Caribbean The beginning of slavery in the Caribbean can be traced back to the emergence of piracy in the 16th and 17th centuries. This eventually led to the promotion of slave trading and sugar plantations. While enslaved on the sugar plantations, slaves were treated very poorly. Plantation owners treated their slaves so poorly that most were undernourished and diseased. Slaves were even forced to work on their spare time to provide for their own needs. Needless to say, slavesRead More Importance of Slavery to the Caribbean Essay2863 Words   |  12 PagesImportance of Slavery to the Caribbean The significance of the role played by slaves in the history of the Caribbean cannot be overemphasized. Nearly everything that defines the Caribbean today can be traced back to the advent of Africans to the sugar plantations several centuries ago. For this reason it is impossible to ignore the issue of slavery when studying the history of the Caribbean, as we are doing in this class. Through our numerous readings on the status of slaves and their treatmentRead More The End to Slavery in the Caribbean Essay examples1245 Words   |  5 PagesThe End to Slavery in the Caribbean The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) was the first successful slave revolt in the Caribbean, and it was one of the most important events in the history of the Americas. Along with the obvious human rights benefits that the Haitian Revolution achieved, there were some serious setbacks for the nation as well. Between 1783 and 1789, Saint Domingue was the foremost sugar producer in the region, but by the end of the war the economy was completely destroyedRead MoreSlavery On The Islands Of The Caribbean890 Words   |  4 PagesSlavery has existed throughout history and has yet to become fully extinct. Slavery is when someone else (human) has ownership of another human. In the ancient world slavery was very popular and not perceived as something wrong. The main source of slaves was prisoners of war. Slavery become a cycle, a slave’s children also became slaves and so on, it was hereditary. Some people sold their children or themselves into slavery to escape starvation. As society became more advanced, slavery became a hugeRead MoreSlavery Vs Indentureship in the caribbean1951 Words   |  8 PagesHistory SBA Slavery and Indentureship can be described as two of the most horrible historic happenings to occur. They share numerous differences as well as Similarities, which make us, question whether Indentureship was disguised as a form of slavery or not. Chattel slavery, otherwise known as traditional slavery is a system under which people are treated as property and are forced to work. Slaves could be held against their will  from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived  ofRead More The Social Impact of Slavery on the Caribbean Society Essay1336 Words   |  6 PagesThe Social Impact of Slavery on the Caribbean Society In order for us to understand the Caribbean, we must acknowledge the tremendous social impact slavery placed upon the islands. We must not only consider the practice of slavery dating back to the indigenous peoples, but from what the introduction of the African slave trade did to the islands economically as well as culturally. In this paper let me reflect on slavery in the Caribbean not from an economical standpoint but, from the racial orRead MoreEssay on Religious Justifications of Slavery in the Caribbean3525 Words   |  15 PagesReligious Justifications of Slavery in the Caribbean The doctrine of Christianity grants eternal life to all persons who accept that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and choose to follow him. Such a statement leaves little room for interpretation of the scripture itself. Nevertheless, the nineteenth century Christian churches of the Caribbean Islands created a racial distinction between humans which determined who could and who could not be granted eternal life through the Christian faith. ThisRead Moreâ€Å"the History of the Caribbean Is the History of the Exploitation of Labour† - with Reference to Slavery and the Encomienda Labour System†1045 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The history of the Caribbean is the history of the exploitation of labour† - with reference to slavery and the Encomienda labour system† In the above statement â€Å"the history of the Caribbean is the history of the exploitation of labour,† it simply states that the Caribbean’s history is basically the history of its exploitation of labour. The definitions of keywords exploitation and labour must be considered. Exploitation can be defined as the practice of taking selfish or unfair advantage of a

American Beyond the Color Line Free Essays

n | American Beyond the Color Line| | | Lashekia Stanley| 3/7/2013| | Marlon Marshall in my opinion wasn’t serious about the juvenile program. You can tell that he really loved what he do as in selling drugs. Marlon loved how much money that was coming in everyday; he isn’t ready to give up that kind of lifestyle just yet. We will write a custom essay sample on American Beyond the Color Line or any similar topic only for you Order Now He basically states that he’s still selling drugs while he’s in the juvenile program. I think he wants to do better in life, but the only thing he knows is what he grew up around. Once he returns home he cannot violate any of his probation meaning: Getting arrested for a new offense while on probation. Failure to pay your fines, failure to perform or complete community service as instructed, failure to appear in court to show progress the probationer made on probation. ailure to submit paperwork to court, failure to report to probation officer as scheduled, failure to pay probation fees to the probation department, failure to submit drug test, failure to submit to search and seizure by police officers of your home or vehicle. If he fail or violate any of his probation, the court may extend his probation, charge added probation terms, he will have to serve a brief time in jail, or revoke his probation altogether and require you to serve out any remaining time of his beginning sentence in prison. As far as Marlon future his goals was to go to college and enter the Police Academy. At the rate he is going his future won’t be so bright if he’s going to continue to sell drugs. To become a police officer you cannot have any kind of misdemeanor or felonies on your record. To better his future, I hope he change, have a turn around, become successful, and reach his goals. Resource Thomson, R. (2012). Probation violation. Retrieved from http://criminal. findlaw. com/criminal-charges/probation-violation. html How to cite American Beyond the Color Line, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Macbeth Theme Essays - Characters In Macbeth, English-language Films

Macbeth Theme "To Know My Deed, ?Twere Best Not Know Myself" How was it possible for such an admirable and noble man, so established in society, to fall so greatly into a dilemma, full of murderous plots and deceit? In William Shakespeare's Macbeth, the idea of one character becoming both victim and villain is introduced. Macbeth falls prey to others' deception, and is supplanted with greed and hate when he is tricked by three witches. When told that he is going to be King of Scotland, Macbeth does whatever he can to ensure his prophecy. In Macbeth's quest for power, he gains a flaw that ends in a deteriorated relationship with Lady Macbeth, and his eventual defeat. "All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be King hereafter!" (I.iii.50) The three witches, with their"prophetic greeting" (I.iii.78) gear Macbeth's drive for power. They embody the supernatural element of this tragedy. With their imperfect predictions, they play on Macbeth's security and nourish the seed of his tragic flaw, which flourishes in their manipulative prophecies and drives him into becoming the King of Scotland. But the Scottish aristocracy comprises of King Duncan, his two princes Malcolm and Donalbain, and various other thanes and nobles, including Macbeth's friend, Banquo. His desire for position on the throne overrides his respect for the King and his own dignity, leading Macbeth to slaughter him, and murder all those who serve as obstacles in his treacherous pursuit of the throne. "Yet I do fear thy nature. It is too full o' the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great; art not without ambition, but without the illness should attend it." (I.v.16-20) In the beginning, Lady Macbeth has a kind of power over Macbeth that she can only achieve through his devotion to her. She adds to his false sense of security, and Macbeth confides in her and lets her persuade him. As the murderous plots drag on, he loses his will to speak in confidence to her. As with Banquo, Macbeth no longer looks to him as an ally, but rather a hurdle that he must defeat in order to fulfill the divination that the witches have cast. Banquo is near enough to draw blood, and like a menacing swordsman, his mere presence threatens Macbeth's existence (III.i.115-117). Macbeth is not sufficiently cultivated in good or evil to gather poise for all occasions; thus he experiences difficulty in sleeping, he uses rhetoric inadequately in the presence of others when disturbed, and even resorts to improbability. "That tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself and falls on the other..." (I.vii.25-28) Macbeth has a conscience that plagues him throughout the story, prohibiting him from forgetting all he knows that is right. But again, the words of his wife, Lady Macbeth, supplied with the warped foresights of the three witches, impels him to stay devoted to his utterly selfish ends. Macbeth's fall from grace into sheer misery is truly tragic in it's nature. Even his soliloquies, notable for magniloquence and marked by voluptuous word-painting, show more the stages of his corruption than its causes - the need for action to cover his lack of poise in awaiting developments and the need to stifle the moral imagination that enables him to foresee the consequences of his actions. Macbeth was simply a weak soul that had been unfairly hoaxed.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

What Is a Good SSAT Score Understanding Your Scores

What Is a Good SSAT Score Understanding Your Scores SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you’re looking at applying to a private elementary, middle, or high school, there’s a good chance you’ll need to take the SSAT first. But what is a good SSAT score? How can you get the score you need to get into the school of your dreams? Unfortunately, there's usuallynot a clear cutoff for what SSAT scores are acceptable. In this article, we'll try to remove some of that uncertaintyby going over how scoring on the SSAT works and what counts as a good SSAT score. How Does SSAT Scoring Work? On their SSAT score reports, students receive scaled section scores for Verbal, Quantitative/Math, and Reading (each of which is out of the same number of points). They'll also receive a total sum score that adds together all three of their section scores. The score range of the SSAT sections and the total sum scores differs depending on whether you've taken the elementary, middle, or upper level SSAT. Level Section Score Range Sum Score Range Elementary 300-600 900-1800 Middle 440-770 1320-2310 Upper 500-800 1500-2400 SSAT scores aren’t just straight conversions that account for number of questions answered correctly, incorrectly, and skipped on the test; instead, the tests are equated, and scores are scaled so that scores can be compared across the years. For example, a 650 on Verbal from 1980 should have been roughly as difficult to get as a 650 on Verbal was in 2017. On your score report, you'll also receive a percentile rank for each of your section scores, which is determined by how your scaled SSAT score stacks up against the scores of other students same grade/gender from US and Canada who took test for the first time in last three years. You'll also find out the range that your section scores are expected to fall in if you retook the test and your total sum score (Verbal + Quantitative + Reading). You can compare your scores to the average scores for students in your grade and, for upper level score reports, to average scores for students in your grade and of your gender. What Is the Average SSAT Score? Unfortunately, information about percentiles for the middle and upper level SSAT is only available to schools who are members of the Enrollment Management Association. If you want to learn more about what score reports for the middle and upper level test look like, you'll need to watch the SSAT's webinar on understanding the middle and upper level score report. The information for the elementary level SSAT, however, was released publicly January 2017. Below, we've pulled out the average scores for 3rd and 4th graders into one handy table: Average Scores 3rd Grade 4th Grade Verbal 471 479 Quantitative 472 469 Reading 478 478 Total Sum Score 1421 1426 If you want a detailed look at the percentiles for each score for the elementary level SSAT, the full tables are available on the SSAT website. Not that kind of table. How Do Schools Use SSAT Scores? What Is a Good SSAT Score? Schools use the scaled SSAT score and percentiles to compare you to other applicants and to judge if you’re likely to succeed in that school, based on how students currently enrolled there have done on the SSAT in the past. Admissions offices don't consider your SSAT scores in a vacuum, though - often, SSAT scores are weighed against grades and other factors. High SSAT scores and low grades in school might indicate a student is underachieving or taking more rigorous courses, while low SSAT scores but high grades in school could indicate either a hard-working student or a student who’s not taking challenging classes. Schools may also use teacher recommendations to clarify which of these categories a student falls into. So what is a good SSAT score? As the SSAT site states, what a good score is changes depending on the school you're applying to. Most schools won’t directly state specific score ranges they’re looking for. Instead, they’ll probably say something in the vein of this statement from the Riverdale admissions office: â€Å"While there is no minimum score required for entry, outlying low scores on these tests tend to be predictive of future difficulties.† Therefore, as a test-taker, you can only deal in generalities, like knowing that getting a large percentage of questions wrong (even up to 50%) is not all that unusual, but that getting an extremely low scaled score (like 1650/2400) will make it more difficult for you to get accepted. Ultimately, as the SSAT's own webinar on reading your score report states, â€Å"a good score is one that you feel best represents your ability and that it’s consistent with what you know to be true about your academic abilities.† If you don’t think your SSAT score shows who you are as a student, then it’s worth retaking it (with studying) to try to get a higher score. What's Next? Want to learn more about what's covered on the elementary, middle, and upper level tests? Then be sure to read our complete guide to the SSAT. Because SSAT scores have high reliability, your score isn’t likely to change from one testing date to another unless there’s a big change in your level of preparedness. Learn the most effective ways to study for the SSAT with this article. Looking for free materials to use for SSAT practice? We've gathered links to the best free SSAT practice tests here. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Harriet Martineauâ€Biography and Works

Harriet Martineau- Biography and Works Born in 1802 in England, Harriet Martineau is considered to be one of the earliest sociologists, a self-taught expert in political economic theory  who wrote prolifically throughout her career about the relationship between politics, economics, morals, and social life. Her intellectual work was grounded in a staunchly moral perspective that was influenced by her Unitarian faith (although she would later become an atheist). She spoke out against slavery and was fiercely critical as well of the inequality and injustice faced by girls, women, and the working poor. As one of the first women journalists of the era, she also worked as a translator, speechwriter, and novelist. Her acclaimed fiction invited readers to consider the pressing social issues of the day.  She was known for her keen ability to explain complicated ideas in an easy-to-understand manner, presenting many of her theories about politics, economics, and society in the form of appealing and accessible stories. Early Life   Harriet Martineau was born in 1802 in Norwich, England. She was the sixth of eight children born to Elizabeth Rankin and Thomas Martineau. Thomas owned a textile mill, and Elizabeth was the daughter of a sugar refiner and grocer, making the family economically stable and wealthier than most British families at the time. The Martineaus were descendants of French Huguenots who fled Catholic France for Protestant England. They were practicing  Unitarians  and instilled the importance of education and critical thinking in all of their children. However, Elizabeth was also a strict believer  in traditional gender roles, so while the Martineau boys went to college, the girls did not and were expected to learn domestic work instead. This would prove to be a formative life experience for Harriet, who bucked all traditional gender expectations and wrote extensively about gender inequality. Self-Education, Intellectual Development, and Work Martineau was a voracious reader from a young age,  was well read in  Thomas Malthus  by the time she was 15, and had already become a political economist at that age, by her own recollection. She wrote and published her first written work, â€Å"On Female Education,† in 1821 as an anonymous author. This piece was a critique of her own educational experience  and how it was formally stopped when she reached adulthood. When her father’s business failed in 1829, she decided to earn a living for her family  and became a working writer. She wrote for the  Monthly Repository, a Unitarian publication, and published her first commissioned volume,  Illustrations of Political Economy, funded by publisher Charles Fox, in 1832. These illustrations were a monthly series that ran for two years, in which Martineau critiqued the politics and economic practices of the day by presenting illustrated tellings of the ideas of Malthus,  John Stuart Mill,  David Ricardo, and  Adam Smith. The series was designed as a tutorial for the general reading audience. Martineau won prizes for some of her essays, and the series sold more copies than did the work of Dickens at the time. Martineau argued that tariffs in early American society only benefited the rich and hurt the working classes both in the U.S. and in Britain. She also advocated for the Whig Poor Law reforms, which shifted assistance to the British poor from cash donations to the workhouse model. In her early years as a writer, she advocated for free market economic principles in keeping with the philosophy of Adam Smith. Later in her career, however, she advocated for government action to stem inequality and injustice, and is remembered by some as a social reformer due to her belief in the progressive evolution of society. Martineau broke with Unitarianism in 1831 and adopted the philosophical position of freethinking, whose adherents seek truth based on reason, logic, and empiricism, rather the dictates of authority figures, tradition, or religious dogma. This shift resonates with her reverence for  August Comtes positivistic sociology and her belief in progress. In 1832 Martineau moved to London, where she circulated among leading British intellectuals and writers, including Malthus, Mill,  George Eliot,  Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and Thomas Carlyle. From there she continued to write her political economy series until 1834. Travels Within the United States When the series was completed,  Martineau traveled to the U.S. to study the young nation’s political  economy and moral structure, much as  Alexis de Tocqueville  had done. While there, she became acquainted with  Transcendentalists  and abolitionists, and with those involved in education for girls and woman. She later published  Society in America,  Retrospect of Western Travel,  and  How to Observe Morals and Manners- considered her first publication based on sociological research- in which she not only criticized the state of education for women but also expressed her support for the abolition of slavery due to its immorality and economic inefficiency as well as its impact on the working classes in the U.S. and in Britain. As an abolitionist, Martineau sold embroidery in order to donate to the cause and also worked as the English correspondent for the  American Anti-Slavery Standard  through the end of the American Civil War. Contributions to Sociology Martineau’s key contribution to the field of sociology was her assertion that when studying society, one must focus on all aspects of it. She emphasized the importance of examining political, religious, and social institutions. By studying society in this way, she felt, one could deduce why inequality existed, particularly that faced by girls and women. In her writings, she brought an early feminist perspective to bear on issues such as race relations, religious life, marriage, children, and home (she herself never married or had children). Her social theoretical perspective was often focused on the moral stance of a populace and how it did or did not correspond to the social, economic, and political relations of its society. Martineau measured progress in society by three standards: the status of those who hold the least power in society, popular views of authority and autonomy, and access to resources that allow the realization of autonomy and moral action. She won numerous awards for her writing  and though controversial, was a rare example of a successful and popular working woman writer of the Victorian era. She published over 50 books and over 2,000 articles in her lifetime. Her translation into English and revision of  Auguste Comte’s  foundational sociological text,  Cours de Philosophie Positive, was received so well by readers and by Comte himself that he had Martineau’s English version translated back to French. Period of Illness and Impact on Her Work Between 1839 and 1845, Martineau became housebound due to a uterine tumor. She moved out of London to a more peaceful location for the duration of her illness. She continued to write extensively during this time but due to her recent experiences shifted her focus to medical topics. She published Life in the Sickroom, which challenged the domination/submission relationship between doctors and their patients- and was viciously criticized by the medical establishment for doing so. Travels in North Africa and the Middle East In 1846, her health restored, Martineau embarked on a tour of Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. She focused her analytic lens on religious ideas and customs and observed that religious doctrine was increasingly vague as it evolved. This led her to conclude, in her written work based on this trip- Eastern Life, Present and Past- that humanity was evolving toward atheism, which she framed as rational, positivist progress. The atheistic nature of her later writing, as well as her advocacy for mesmerism, which she believed cured her tumor and the other ailments she had suffered, caused deep divisions between her and some of her friends. Later Years and Death In her later years, Martineau contributed to the Daily News and the radical leftist Westminster Review. She remained politically active, advocating for women’s rights during the 1850s and 60s. She supported the Married Women’s Property Bill, the licensing of prostitution and legal regulation of customers, and women’s suffrage. She died in 1876 near Ambleside, Westmorland, in England, and her autobiography was published posthumously in 1877. Martineaus Legacy Martineau’s sweeping contributions to social thought are more often than not overlooked within the canon of classical sociological theory, though her work was widely lauded in its day, and preceded that of  Ãƒâ€°mile Durkheim  and  Max Weber. Founded in 1994 by Unitarians in Norwich and with support from Manchester College, Oxford, The Martineau Society in England holds an annual conference in her honor. Much of her written work is in the public domain and available for free at the Online Library of Liberty, and many of her letters are available  to the public via the British National Archives. Selected Bibliography Illustrations of Taxation, 5 volumes, published by Charles Fox, 1832-4Illustrations of Political Economy, 9 volumes, published by Charles Fox, 1832-4Society in America, 3 volumes, Saunders and Otley, 1837Retrospect of Western Travel, Saunders and Otley, 1838How to Observe Morals and Manners, Charles Knights and Co., 1838Deerbrook, London, 1839Life in the Sickroom, 1844Eastern Life, Present and Past, 3 volumes, Edward Moxon, 1848Household Education, 1848The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte, 2 volumes, 1853Harriet Martineau’s Autobiography, 2 volumes, posthumous publication, 1877

Friday, February 14, 2020

You decide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

You decide - Essay Example Life is really complicated and we need to understand our aim and to do that we need to sit down and introspect. Many a time we come across situations in life where we have to make difficult choices and these difficult choices also decide our future, this poem is all about choosing the road which is less travelled, it also goes to show the courage of the poet who decides to take a path which is less travelled and there is a possibility of him getting lost but he is brave enough to try something different from others. This is what life is all about, we must be brave enough to trot a path less travelled, it may prove to be a wrong decision or it may prove to be a right decision, it is all about making choices when you are at the crossroads, this is what the poem is all about. At the very end the poet ponders over his choice, his life would have been much different had he taken the other road and this is very true. Our life would also be different had we made different decisions and had we taken the road less travelled, life is all about making the right, the most successful people often make the right choices. The poem has hidden meaning in it; the literal meaning of the poem is very easy to understand. A traveler reaches a fork in the road and is discombobulated because the road shows the traveler two choices, the traveler after much thinking, chooses the road less travelled by people. The figurative meaning of the poem reflects upon the choices that we make in our lives. We can either choose a road which is very frequently chosen by other people or we can choose to walk on a road which is hardly chosen by other people. After making our choice, we would always have regrets because the road not taken would always force us to think about the endless possibilities. This is what the poem is all about and this poem is really popular, Robert Frost became a household name because of this poem. Antithesis is quite conspicuous in the poem, the traveler has to